Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies (EMG/NCS)

EMG, or electromyography, evaluates the electrical properties of muscles. EMG is useful to examine the extent of nerve damage as well as the timeframe in which nerve damage occurred. EMG is performed along with nerve conduction studies which examines nerve properties and identifies conditions peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression issues such as carpal tunnel syndrome.

What do I need to do to prepare for an EMG/NCS study?
It is helpful to avoid the use of skin lotions and creams on the day of testing.

Botulinum Toxin Injection Therapy (BOTOX®)

Botulinum toxin injection therapy (BOTOX®) is used to treat several neurological conditions.
In October 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved BOTOX injections for the treatment of chronic migraines in adults who experience headaches on 14 or more days per month. BOTOX is injected into the muscles around the eyes, forehead, side of the head, back of the head and neck. Botulinum toxin therapy is a safe and effective treatment although some patients experience transient weakness in injected muscles.

How does BOTOX® work?

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter which nerves release to activate muscle contraction. BOTOX® blocks the transmission of acetylcholine from nerves to muscles. By blocking acetylcholine release muscle contraction is reduced. The precise mechanism leading to relief of migraine headaches has not been determined but may interfere with the transmission of nerve pain signals as well as muscle contraction.

Botulinum toxin has been useful in the treatment of many neurological conditions including:

• Migraine headaches
• Hemifacial spasm - repetitive contraction of muscles on one side of the face
• Limb spasticity which occurs after stroke or spinal cord injury
• Cervical dystonia - persistent muscle spasm in the neck that causes the head to be pulled to one side, forward or backward
• Head tremor


An electroencephalogram (EEG) is used to record brainwaves and identify if the brain activity is normal. It is a safe and painless procedure. A gel is used to place recording electrodes over various regions of the head. An EEG is useful in the diagnosis of various conditions such as seizures and identifying the cause of cognitive problems.

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